(1) What did the Albigensians believe?
The Albigensians believed that the world was dualistic. The universe was a struggle between good and evil. The physical world was the creation of Satan, and therefore corrupt and evil, while the spiritual world was God’s realm. The spiritual world was good, a place for a soul burdened with the material world to escape to.
(2) Describe the mendicant orders of the thirteenth century.
The mendicant friars were dedicated to living life like Christ did. They renounced riches and property, instead traveling around the globe to preach Christianity. They were given the name “mendicant”, from the Latin mendicare, or “to beg”, because their survival depended solely on the good will of their audience. The friars of the mendicant order were very active members of the communities they stayed in. They took care of the sick and poor, teaching them, healing them, and just helping them out in general. Their maxim was latin for “not to live for themselves only but to serve others”.
(3) What was the significance of the Magna Carta?
The Magna Carta, issued in 1215, was the first document to state in writing that the king and his government were not above the law. It also stated individual rights, seeking to keep the king from exploiting his power and to limit royal authority.
(4) What was the significance of King Philip IV of France?
Nicknamed Philip the Fair, Philip IV’s rule was so significant because he successfully challenged the traditional power of the papacy in France, strengthening the monarchy.